Mediterranean Woodland and Dehesa:
Mediterranean woodland and shrubland and the dehesas (lightly wooded pastureland), which together cover most of Seville’s Sierra Norte, are to be found in an excellent state of conservation. The predominant species of trees are the cork oak, the holm oak and the gall oak. The shrub abounds in rockrose, heather, tree strawberry and European fan palm. The dehesa is a consummate example of the compatibility between the sustainable exploitation of natural resources – via extensive livestock farming – and the conservation of nature. The Mediterranean woodland and the dehesa are essential for the breeding and fattening of the Iberian pig, while at the same time sustaining the breeding of jewels of Iberian birdlife such as the golden eagle, the black vulture and the azure-winged magpie. Other birds typical of this habitat are the hoopoe, the woodchat shrike, the short-toed eagle and the booted eagle.
The rivers of Seville’s Sierra Norte are fed by rainwater and suffer significant variations on account of summer droughts and torrential rains during the rest of the year. Several stretches of the Rivers Hueznar, Ciudadeja, Viar and Cala boast riparian forests of alder, ash, willow and black poplar in an exceptional state of conservation. The most noteworthy presence – though scarce – is that of the dipper. More frequently found in this habitat are the common kingfisher, the grey wagtail, the red-rumped swallow and the European bee-eater, as well as different species of herons. Where the watercourses are deeply incrusted in the ground, giving rise to rocky gulleys, it is possible to see the black stork, the Griffon vulture, the Egyptian vulture and the eagle owl.